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“事先约定”在受贿罪认定中的意义
作者【】    来源【】    添加时间:【2008-9-3 12:08:13】  浏览次数:【28374
      受贿罪是国家工作人员职务犯罪中最常见的主要犯罪情形,有关司法解释对于受贿罪的认定和处理规定得比较详细,但是由于行为人收受他人财物时的主观心态及客观表现多种多样,仍有许多问题值得进一步研究,行为人双方的“事先约定”问题便是其中之一。在一些非典型的受贿罪案件中,“事先约定”的有无,以及个体内容,直接决定着受贿罪是否成立。
     一、关于事前收受他人财物的情形
 行为人在事前收受他人财物并在收受他人财物后利用职务便利为他人谋取了利益,这是典型的受贿行为,但在许多情况下,行为人收受了他人财物,直到案发,还没有为他人谋取利益的行为,这种情形下,情况比较复杂,有的能够构成犯罪,有的则不能。这时,就应认真审查行为人双方有无“事先约定”以及“事先约定”的内容。
 如果国家工作人员在收受他人财物之前或者之后,应他人的请求许诺为他人谋取利益,那么这种请求和许诺之间在客观上就形成了一种以权换利的约定。这种约定的本身就使职务行为的纯洁性不可收买性受到了侵犯,具备了受贿罪的最本质的犯罪特征。为他人谋取利益的许诺本身是一种行为,不要求有谋取利益的实际行为与结果。也就是说,只要行为人在收取他人财物时,与请托人之间达成了事后为请托人谋取利益的“事先约定”,行为人的行为应按受贿处理,不管以后是否已采取其他实际的谋利行为或是否出现谋利结果。
     在这种事前收受他人财物的情形中,还有一种比较特殊的情况,即行为人在即将担任某职务之前收受他人财物。笔者认为,这里也要分析行为人双方在收受财物过程中的约定情况,如果行为人在收受财物时期确表示愿意在将来就任某种职务后,为请托人谋取利益,则可以认为行为人双方之间有行贿、受贿的故意,有为他人利用职务(尽管是未来的职务)便利为他人谋取利益的明确许诺,这种收受财物与许诺将来为他人谋取利益的行为本身,符合刑法关于受贿罪的犯罪构成,应按受贿认定处理。
      二、关于事后收受他人财物的情形
 行为人利用职务便利为他人谋取利益并在事后收受他人财物,这也是比较典型的受贿犯罪形式。一般情况下,无需考察事先有无明确约定,因为行为人收受他人财物的行为本身就说明了他主观上具有受贿的故意,认定为受贿是没有争议的。但是也有几种特殊的情况,需要对“事先约定”情况进行考察,从而决定是否按受贿处理。
     一种情况是行为人在职期间为请托人谋取利益,在离(退)休后收受他人财物。对此,最高人民法院2000年《关于国家工作人员利用职务上的便利为他人谋取利益离退休后收受财物行为如何处理问题的批复》明确规定:“国家工作人员利用职务上的便利为请托人谋取利益,并与请托人事先约定在其离退休后收受请托人财物,构成犯罪的,以受贿罪处罚。”从这个规定可以看出,在这种情形下,事先有约定的,按受贿罪定罪处罚,事先没有约定,则不能按受贿罪处理。
   另一种情况是行为人在职期间为他人谋取利益,离职后收受他人财物,这种情况司法实践中也不少见。这种情况如何处理,法律及司法解释均无明确规定,实践中认识也不一致。有一种意见认为,应该按受贿罪处理;有一种意见认为应区分处理,如果事先有约定,则按受贿罪处理,如果事先没有约定,则不宜按受贿罪处理。我赞成第二种意见。因为国家工作人员在位时为他人谋取了利益,离退休后收受他人财物与离任后收受他人财物的行为性质的本质上是一样的,都是收受财物时已离开了为他人谋利时所处的职务,因此,二者都须要求有事先约定才能认定为受贿。之所以作这样的条件限制,是因为离任后对在任时职务行为所引起的后果无法控制和影响,更无法控制和影响对方当事人事后的主观心态和行为。只有事先约定在离任后收受财物,才能清楚地表明其受贿的主观故意,才能将其事后收受他人财物的行为与其在任时的职务行为联系在一起;如果事先没有约定,则就割裂了其事后收受财物与利用职务便利的关系,则不具备受贿罪所特有的破坏职务行为纯洁性、不可收买性这种本质特征。
 
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